Cyber Attacks and Business Growth: How to Avoid Being the Next Victim

A recent report by the UK government found that two in every five businesses (39%) have experienced a cyber attack or security breach in the last 12 months.

The report found that fewer businesses are using security monitoring tools to identify suspicious activity, highlighting how many businesses are unaware of the attacks and breaches they are facing. The report also found that 17% of businesses in the UK, do not have up-to-date anti-virus software.

These statistics highlight the threat that many businesses are not prepared to deal with the ever-present threat of cyber attacks. The bottom line is that cyber attacks directly affect a business’s growth.

In this blog post, we will highlight the impact of cyber attacks on UK businesses and share practical advice on how your business can take steps to prevent cyber attacks from occurring. Let’s get started.

Impact of Cyber Attacks on UK Businesses

According to the National Cyber Security Centre, hundreds of businesses and organisations in the UK reported cyber incidents in 2022. Several dozen of these were deemed significant enough to require a national-level response. These incidents included various malicious cyber activities including ransomware, malware, reconnaissance, disruption of systems and services, data exfiltration, and network intrusions.

Efforts to defraud UK businesses have a direct impact on their growth. Recent data indicated that the cost of a data breach in the UK is on the rise, jumping 8.1%. At more than £4.5 million, the average total cost of a data breach in the UK is the fourth-highest in the world, higher than countries such as Germany, Japan, and France.

The majority of UK businesses who have experienced a data breach say that they have experienced more than one. There are many reasons for the recurrence of breaches. These include employees without adequate cybersecurity training, unpatched vulnerabilities in a company’s network, and human error.

How to Avoid Cyber Attacks

While the threat of cyber attacks is very real in the UK, the good news is that there are many steps businesses can take to reduce the likelihood they will be affected. Let’s take a closer look at some of these.

Partner With an Expert

As a business, you shouldn’t have to face up to the threat of cyber attacks alone. Here at SYTECH, we are digital forensic experts, helping businesses to recover, analyse, and investigate detailed files, internet history, hidden files, and more.

We offer a range of services to UK businesses. For example, our computer forensic experts are here to investigate your computer data, recovering and examining digital data.

As your dependable digital forensics support, we also offer mobile phone forensics and specialist forensics. We are also available to act as your expert witness in court cases. 

Ensure Your Systems and Software Are Updated

Cyber attacks often occur because a business’s security software and systems are outdated, which results in vulnerabilities being exposed. Cybercriminals and hackers are therefore able to take advantage.

We recommend that businesses in the UK invest in a patch management system. This system keeps track of all system and software upgrades, which ensures that a business’s systems are up-to-date and secure.

Set Up a Firewall

A firewall, in computing, refers to a network security system. This system monitors and controls both incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. Effectively, it establishes a barrier between an untrusted network and a trusted network.

If your business doesn’t already have a firewall, it’s important to set one up. This is one of the most efficient strategies a business can take to protect itself. Any brute force assaults on your business’s systems or network will be blocked before any significant harm can be caused.

Make a Backup of Your Data

Data backups are a critical aspect of data security. There are many good reasons for this, including because preventive measures don’t always work. Many businesses who end up losing their data are simply unable to recover from the impact and end up closing down. 

Therefore, we recommend that you always have your business data backed up in the case of a disaster, such as a cyber attack. This will help to avoid a significant slowdown and the loss of important information and data.

Keep Track of Who Has System Access

In addition to cyber attacks, physical attacks on computers are also possible. Therefore, it’s important to have control over who has access to your network.

For example, it is possible that a person may enter your place of business and insert a USB key with infected data into a computer, resulting in them infecting your network or giving them access. It’s a good idea to install a perimeter security system. This is a way to prevent break-ins and cybercrime.

We also recommend that employees use separate passwords for each program they use and change them frequently. This will help keep your business safe from both internal and external threats.

How to Avoid Being a Victim of a Business Cyber Attack

As this blog post highlights, the risk of cyber attacks in the UK is very real. Cyber attacks pose a serious threat to a business’s growth. The above information and steps will help your business protect itself and reduce the risk of a damaging cyber attack.

SYTECH are leading experts in recovering, analysing, and investigating cyber security issues for UK businesses. We offer unrivalled experience and expertise. If you would like to learn more about how we can help your business, please don’t hesitate to reach out to our team.

 

12 Days of Christmas: Our Top 12 Tips for Giving Courtroom Testimony

The truth is in your hands! More than one million cases were held in magistrates’ courts in 2020 alone. Many of these cases involved expert witnesses who explained difficult concepts for jurors and magistrates. 

Your testimony can be the difference between acquittal and conviction. For you to make the most effective courtroom testimony and to ensure that justice is served, you need to follow a few steps. 

How should you behave in court? How can you answer questions and give accurate information? What should you never do while you are testifying?

Answer these questions and you can perfectly fulfil your responsibilities as an expert witness. So, here are 12 essential tips for testifying in court.

1. Review Courtroom Etiquette

Even if you are familiar with testifying in court, you should study courtroom etiquette before your testimony. It never hurts to have a helpful refresher. Try to sit in on a hearing that your judge or magistrate is running so you can understand how they conduct themselves in the courtroom. Take notes on what types of answers they like, and what they don’t.

Read a guide on what to expect coming to a court so you’re fully prepared. You can also ask for tips for testifying from a judge not involved in your case if you would like extra reassurance. 

2. Understand Your Legal Rights and Limitations

As an expert witness, you cannot offer your own opinion and claim it is fact. You must base your testimony on science that is generally well-accepted, and you must explain your methods and thought process during your testimony. 

You should talk to a barrister or solicitor so you know what answers you can and can’t give. If you’re nervous about violating the law or courtroom procedures, hire an expert witness preparation coach to train you. 

3. Study the Case

Gather as much information about the case as possible. Understand how your testimony will elucidate a confusing point or procedure. Document your own process of researching the case, the surrounding issues, and consider taking written notes you can introduce as evidence in the trial.

4. Dress Properly

You should wear formal attire before going to court. Wear full sleeves, comb your hair, and trim any facial hair. You can wear a coat if you’re feeling cold, but select one that will not clash with the rest of your outfit.

5. Take the Responsibility of Testifying Seriously

Being asked to testify as an expert witness is a serious responsibility. Avoid saying anything about the case to anyone besides your lawyer. 

If you feel you cannot give your testimony due to a conflict of interest or another shortcoming, tell the judge as soon as possible. You can be excused if you have a valid legal reason. Testifying while you have a conflict of interest can lead to a retrial or a delay.

6. Be Clear

Your testimony will be useless if the judge or jury cannot understand what you are talking about. Use simple language and keep your sentences as short as possible. Do not talk over anyone, especially when someone is objecting to a question.

Be as specific as possible with your answers. If you are answering a multi-part question, mention what part you are addressing before you give your answer. If you need to qualify your remarks, make the qualification and explain the factors that can affect your answer. 

7. Use Your Own Words

You can ask a legal professional for help and get expert witness training for yourself. But you should not answer questions based on what you remember from your conversations with others. You should always phrase your answers as you would phrase them in natural conversation. 

Do not nod or shake your head to a question. You should speak aloud and make your thoughts known so everyone can understand what you are saying.

8. Take a Moment to Think

You do not have to answer a question as soon as it is asked of you. Take a few seconds to think about what the best answer is and how you can phrase it properly. There is no rush in the courtroom. 

Take a deep breath so you are calm and not rushing to speak. You can also take a sip of water if you’re feeling thirsty or dry. This will help you with providing a clear and concise answer. 

9. Answer Questions Directly

You may be asked uncomfortable or difficult questions. Do not get emotional, and do not dodge the question you are asked. Give the most honest answer you can and ask for clarification if something seems confusing. 

10. Never Volunteer Information

Do not meander while you are answering a question. Stay on the subject and stop talking once you’ve stated everything that you think is helpful. Do not talk about a different subject, even if you think it would be helpful.

11. Do Not Exaggerate 

Exaggerating or overstating your conclusions can hurt your credibility and cause you to contradict yourself. If you are not sure of something, say that you are not sure. If you think a lawyer is twisting your words or exaggerating your position, mention that when you are answering a question.

12. Be Positive

Though you should avoid exaggerating, you should also put as much authority into your answers as possible. Avoid saying “I think” or “I guess.” Bring up statistics, scientific theories, and processes that corroborate your perspective, and refer to other facts brought up in the trial if you can. 

Deliver a Strong Courtroom Testimony

Before you deliver a courtroom testimony, you need to take some preparations. Study the case, talk to a legal professional, and get training so you deliver clear answers. Before you answer any question, think it through so you are using your own words. 

Never make guesses, exaggerate your information, or avoid answering questions. Give the full extent of your knowledge and acknowledge your limitations. 

If these tips are hard to grasp, you should get courtroom testimony preparation. Sytech Consultants helps businesspeople and professionals prepare for giving testimonies. Contact us today.

Nightmare Before Christmas: Make Sure Your Clients Data Is Protected This Festive Period

You could argue that the most overlooked essential business expense is cybersecurity. With attacks occurring every 39 seconds in the US alone, it’s important that we enter the new year with greater protection.

No matter what our plans are for the holidays, you still need to ensure your data is protected. Let’s talk about data protection over Christmas break.

Why Are Attacks a Concern Right Now?

Cyberattacks are always a concern, but did you know the holidays are the most common time of the year for data breaches? Cyberattacks surge during the holiday season every year, and small and medium-sized businesses are the prime target. So, why is that?

Small and mid-sized businesses are the most common targets for one simple reason; they’re the perfect fit for attacks. Think about it.

If you were a cybercriminal, you wouldn’t want to waste your time attacking random strangers’ personal accounts and hoping for the best. They may not have anything worth stealing.

Conversely, attacking a large company like Apple or the US government would have the highest potential reward, but the most security. This puts small and medium-sized enterprises in the “sweet spot” for attacks.

So, the only question is why the holiday season is such a busy time for attackers. While there are many potential reasons, the holidays are usually a golden opportunity for attackers with an increase in remote employees, a decrease in IT monitoring, extended server vulnerabilities, and more frequent transactions.

On top of that, many people are also more desperate around the holidays, making them more willing to commit crimes to make ends meet. This could result from shorter work hours, large family gatherings, unpaid time off, and more.

All of this makes the holiday season a perfect time for cybercrime. This is especially true for businesses that see an increase in sales this season, as that leaves more transactions to exploit.

How to Make Sure Your Data Is Protected

Remember that 60% of businesses fail within six months after a cyber attack. You don’t want to risk having to tell your customers and staff about a data breach, as this could devastate your business. Here’s how to protect data over the holidays!

Use a VPN

If you have employees traveling or working remotely during the holiday season, consider using a virtual private network or VPN. This is especially important on company devices. One compromised smartphone can destroy a business.

Moreover, this will ensure that your employees aren’t using too many variables in network security, which can prevent hackers from breaching your systems.

Secure Your File Sharing

Your file-sharing is another critical aspect, especially if some employees are remote. Data is most vulnerable during transport, so use a cloud-based system with two-factor authentication for the best results. It’s the easiest and safest way for employees to access and share files from anywhere.

Meet With Staff

Sit down with your staff and talk about the rising cyber threats during the holidays. You can have all of the security knowledge in the world, but it won’t matter if your staff doesn’t know how to keep your data safe.

Talk to them about best practices, encourage them to change passwords, and most importantly, teach them about phishing scams. Phishing, and other social engineering attacks, are when attackers use psychological manipulation to achieve a specific end goal. No matter who you are, you can fall victim to one of these.

We all know not to send the “prince” who’s “stuck” our life savings, but with the rise of deep-fake technology and sophisticated scamming techniques, employees may truly believe that a coworker is asking for something reasonable. If they don’t have the training to recognize the right flags and to report suspicious behavior, then your data is vulnerable to scams.

These conversations should include where to report potential threats, how to respond, and general best practices for protecting data. If you plan to use any new software (anti-malware, file sharing, etc.), make sure staff become familiar with it before working remotely.

Test Your Network

If you’re concerned about the security standards of your system, you can always try penetration testing. This will determine how secure your network is from potential hackers and help you close potential doors for them to enter.

Scan For Viruses

Christmas is the perfect time for antimalware scans. You should do these at least once a week across all of your devices. You can pick up malware from any site online, any file in your inbox, or really anywhere.

The only way to find out is to scan and remove potential malware before it becomes too big of a problem to manage.

Get the Right Help

Again, one of the major concerns is a lack of IT staff and system monitoring. If that’s the case for your organization, you need to find protection as soon as possible.

With the right help, you can see how your systems hold up to penetration testing. From there, cybersecurity experts can prescribe the right monitoring and response plan for your needs, as well as a detailed security strategy. Check out our cyber services to learn more!

Stay Secure

Now that you know how to ensure your data is protected this holiday season, put these tips to use right away. The longer you wait, the longer you remain at risk of disaster.

Stay up to date with our latest cybersecurity tips, and don’t hesitate to contact us with any questions or for help with your security needs!

 

The Grinch Who Stole Christmas: 6 Things You Need To Do If You Suspect Someone Stole Your Customers Data

The Christmas period is a perfect time to perform a cyber-attack on your IT environment. Darktrace reported a 30 percent increase in the average number of ransomware attacks over the holiday period compared to the monthly average. Therefore, it’s vital you stay extra vigilant during this period. But what should you do if you suspect someone has stolen your customers’ data?

Step 1 – Communication: If you suspect you have had customers data stolen, the first step is to make sure the relevant parties are informed within your business. This may include your IT Manager, Senior Managers, Data Protection Officer and Security Operations Centre. 

Depending on the extent of the breach, you will have 72 hours from identifying the breach, to report it to the Information Commissioner Office (ICO). A full investigation is not expected within this time frame,  they will allow you to provide information in phases. It’s important at this stage to make sure a log is kept of all actions taken so that they can be included within the report. 

Step 2 – Containment: To prevent the attack from spreading further into your network, the immediate action will be to contain the incident by isolating compromised devices from your network. This may also involve isolating entire parts to your network if a particular office or department is affected. 

Step 3 – Investigation and Removal Of Threats: Now that the affected devices have been contained, you will need to have the devices examined to determine the extent of the attack including: 

  • What data has been stolen?
  • If the attacker can still access your IT network?
  • How was the attacker able to gain access? 

Any threats that could allow the attacker to regain access to your network will then be removed. 

We know that time is of the essence in these situations. By choosing SYTECH, you will get undivided attention and focus with the best customer care from the moment you first contact us, until the incident is fully resolved.

Step 4 – Submit A Report: Once the investigation is completed and depending on the results, you will need to submit a full report to the ICO. Not all incidents need to be reported though. You can use the self-assessment tool on the ICO website to see if a report is required. 

Step 5 – Recovery: Now that the investigation has concluded, you can now start the recovery process to restore functionality to your business. Ideally, you will have backups of your data which will allow you to carry on where you left off. Once you have your systems back online, you should test and monitor each device to ensure there is still no threat. 

Step 6 – Security Improvements: The final step is to review the incident, so that you can apply additional security to prevent a similar incident in the future. This can involve:

  • Installing security patches
  • Physical security improvements
  • Changing passwords
  • Staff awareness training
  • Install monitoring software

Although your IT environment is now secure, threats are ever evolving. Once improvements have been made to your systems, it is vital to continue monitoring for threats and making an effort to constantly improve your security and keeping staff aware of the dangers. 

The Evolution of Vehicle Forensics

The Evolution of Vehicle Forensics

by Matthew J Parkinson BSc (Hons), Laboratory Manager (SYTECH Digital Forensics) 
Credit: Matthew G McKay MComp (Hons)

Introduction
In this day and age, technology surrounds our everyday lives, whether it be at home watching the Smart TV, at the gym using a Smart Watch or in the car using a Sat-Nav, society thrives on it. At the center of this ever-growing, fast paced industry, is the Mobile Phone.Mobile Phones are leading the way in technological advancements with many new technologies exploiting the phone’s connectivity and capabilities, since a mobile phone is generally with the user, it is the perfect hub for all of our digital needs. This has led to a growing interest in the “Internet of Things” and the idea of a “Smart Home” which allows different aspects of your home to be autonomous or controlled via a Mobile Phone. This growth of the idea of everything being connected has now extended into vehicles, altering the way vehicle technology is implemented.Since 1930, when the first stereo was implemented within a car, until not so long ago, car technology has been stagnating with not many changes away from the original idea. Recently, car technology has started catching up to the 21st Century with the buyer’s expectation increasing, and expecting; Bluetooth, Touch Screens and DAB radio as standard. With the implementation of the aforementioned features comes concerns over what data the car will store.Currently, Vehicle Forensics involves the investigation of a bespoke system with limited research available and manufacturers restricting information to assist.We believe the future of Vehicle Forensics will revolve around a Mobile Phone, eliminating past issues and forensic limitations.Predicting the direction in which technology will flow towards is important for any digital forensics company and here at SYTECH Digital Forensics it’s no different. At SYTECH, we endeavour to maintain a strong arm in research and development in order to stay up-to-date with “bleeding edge” technology, this innovative characteristic of the company is vital in order to maintain a well-established advantage in the digital forensic age.This article explores the marriage of two industries, mobile devices and vehicle technology, and how they will change Vehicle Forensics for the better.The Evolution of Vehicle Technology HistoryIn the past, Vehicle Technology was confined to the car radio, with the only improvements relating to different ways of storing and accessing music, this originally came in the form of a tape (cassette) which was then followed by CD’s. The first stage of device connectivity to a car was an Auxiliary Port (AUX) which was implemented by vehicle manufacturers. This enabled a user to play music from a personal device.

After this, Car manufacturers started developing Vehicle Infotainment Systems, which generally used a touch-screen with bespoke hardware and software. These systems displayed a visual interface of what was once analogue and included features such as programmable radio stations and basic manufacturer- supplied satellite navigation. This system was quickly outdated as the process of updating the system’s software was inconvenient and not undertaken by the majority of the users. This process involved getting the software from the manufacturer, commonly in the form of a CD / DVD. This led the car manufacturers to look for other means of keeping the system up-to-date.

Current

Society’s heavy reliance on Mobile Phones and their idea of being connected at all times has led to vehicles needing to implement a strong link to take advantage of these devices. This started out as the connection to a phone being possible via Bluetooth or Physical connection. This allowed the user to play music stored on their mobile phone, download their phonebook onto the in-car system and make and receive phone calls hands-free. This was achieved by the phone sharing its data with the in-car system that displayed the music, phonebook and call information in its native format.

At this stage, the connectivity of the phone and vehicle infotainment system was useful but still restrictive with the users still having to rely on limited functionality and basic software provided by the vehicle manufacturer. This often included a native satellite navigation system that was both expensive and difficult to update leading to maps becoming erroneous. Due to the issues of the in-car system, many technology companies started looking for a solution. Overlooking these issues, there is a strong foundation for an efficient, connected and up-to-date eco-system to build upon, with the already present Bluetooth and USB connections, Touch Screen display and microphones placed for hands-free control.

The in-car technology market is at a very pivotal point right now with two well-established companies introducing the following standards:

Apple CarPlay

Apple CarPlay is a development from Apple which was released in 2014 as “iOS in the Car” but rebranded to CarPlay, it allows the user to connect their iPhone to the in-car display through a USB or Bluetooth connection. The display will then show a refined version of the iPhone’s display with all the applications and notifications the user will need whilst in the car. As standard these applications are; Apple Maps, Phone, Messages and Music. The user will then have the option to include additional third-party apps that are compatible with CarPlay and accepted by Apple, these include music streaming, navigation, radio, communication and many other genres of apps. Currently, application development is in its infancy but will grow as the technology is standardised across the vehicle manufacturing range.

The user can control CarPlay using their voice, touch or in-car controls. The voice control will use the already established voice recognition software built into most Apple products called Siri, this can be activated from the steering wheel or saying the words “Hey Siri”. After activating this voice control the user is able to control all the supported applications, as well as perform internet searches. Siri can also answer many different queries from the user for example “How long will it take to get home?” and “Play a song by Bon Jovi”, both useful if stuck in traffic. The touch controls will be utilised on the in-car screen where the current activity will be displayed. CarPlay will integrate and operate with the vehicle’s in-car controls such as steering wheel buttons and dashboard dials. Apple CarPlay requires a compatible Infotainment System and an iPhone 5 or later running Apple’s mobile device operating system, iOS 7.1 or above.

Android Auto

Android Auto was developed and released by Google in 2015, it allows the Android operating system to be displayed on an in-car infotainment system. Android Auto requires a Physical and Bluetooth connection which enables the device to display notifications, sync contact information and make and receive calls. Android Auto is built around Google Maps, Google Now and the ability to talk to Google and also has a growing audio and messaging app eco-system. Android Auto requires an application to be installed on the Mobile Phone to allow the connection to the in-car system, this is downloaded from the Google Play store.

Android Auto displays five option panels to the user: Navigation, Phone function, Information, Music & Media and Car diagnostics information. The Navigation pane will present the user with a polished version of Google Maps, this will include a voice controlled search function, live traffic information and turn-by-turn directions. The Phone function pane will allow the user to receive and make calls as well as dictating SMS messages. The Information pane will allow the user to conduct internet searches, using Google, with their voice. The Music & Media pane will contain all the entertainment apps which include Spotify, Pocket Casts and Google Play Music. The Car diagnostics pane will show the car’s various statistics.

In a similar fashion to Apple, Google will monitor and control the applications that will be compatible with Android Auto to keep driver-safety measures at the
forefront of their vision. Android Auto requires a compatible vehicle infotainment system and can be used with mobile devices running Android operating system, version 5.0, also known as “Lollipop”, or higher.

Similar Technologies

Technologies similar to both Apple CarPlay and Android Auto include, MirrorLink, a research project by Nokia, created to integrate a smart phone and a car’s infotainment system. Some vehicle manufacturers have native systems for syncing the car with smartphones but Android Auto and Apple CarPlay will have many benefits over the competition, this is due to the link to the user’s mobile phone. This link provides the user with the already present functionality, applications and personal data that the phone possesses to use with the in-car system.

Another technology that has features that compliment both Apple CarPlay and Android Auto is “OnStar”. This is being introduced to many new vehicles across the UK, with Vauxhall being the first to include this service across the range. “OnStar” provides direct communication to an advisor who can assist with tasks such as Navigation, security and various other features. Along with this, “OnStar” also brings other useful technologies to the vehicle system which include WiFi, sensor access, automated emergency response and limited app control such as unlocking your car using an app on your mobile phone.

An analogy for these technologies is a set top box and a TV:
– The set top box is the Mobile Phone
– The TV is the Car Display

The TV alone has limited functionality but the connection of a set top box allows further capabilities
o be added and displayed on the TV.

Data Created

The implementation of all this new technology brings a new perspective on the way we use our cars, resulting in different data being collected about its user. In the past, vehicles have been a gold mine of data but forensic barriers including bespoke systems and unsupported hardware meant that vehicles were being overlooked, although potentially imperative to an investigation. The introduction of new in-car systems means the Mobile Phone will become the hub of all the data thus allowing a clear cut method in obtaining the data without the previous complications, meaning Vehicle Forensics will become Mobile Forensics.

Vehicle & Mobile Forensics

The merging together of Mobile & Vehicle Forensics will result in the main extraction method of vehicle data becoming the analysis of Mobile Phones that have been connected to the vehicle in question. This will bring simplicity and speed to these investigations, as Mobile Forensics has a strong foundation with industry-recognised tools, a Mobile Phone is easier to store and work with and the fact that two avenues of data can be analysed as one.

Along with data that is already recovered from a Mobile Phone examination, data from the connection to the in-car system through Apple CarPlay or Android Auto will also be included, this will show the user’s activity whilst in the car. Applications running through Android Auto and Apple CarPlay from the connected phone will create the majority of the data. The types of applications currently available and future considerations are as follows:

Location-based Applications

– Location-based applications are predominately satellite navigation apps such as Apple Maps and Google Maps. Siri and Google Now both use the user’s location to narrow down the scope of a user’s requests such as nearby petrol stations and restaurants. These applications will create location data which is very useful in pin-pointing the user’s movements and location, potentially providing important evidence for a case.

Phone Applications

– Phone applications will include the native Phone app and various other third-party apps, these allow contacts to be saved and the making and receiving of calls over GSM or an internet-based network e.g. Skype and FaceTime Audio. These applications will create call logs which will provide the user’s communication activity, which is useful evidence in a case.

Messaging Applications

– Messaging applications will include the native Messaging application, Email and various third-party apps, these allow for messages to be sent over GSM or an internet-based network, e.g. iMessage, WhatsApp and Kik. These applications will create chat logs which could be used for evidence of communication between two or more parties.

Music & Audio Applications

– Music & Audio applications will include the native Audio application as well as many music streaming options such as Spotify and Deezer. Other types of Music & Audio applications will include Audiobooks, Podcasts and News apps. These applications can show user activity and they have potential to compliment evidence in a case.

Voice Control

– Voice Control applications will utilise the user’s voice to control various aspects of the in-car system, this will be achieved through the native voice recognition software from the Mobile Phone, e.g. Siri and Google Now. This software brings functionality that is easy to control whilst maintaining driver safety, this functionality includes:
o Internet Searches
o Voice Dialling, e.g. “Call George”
o SMS dictation, e.g. “Message Stuart”
o Updating social media feeds, e.g. Facebook and Twitter
o Location queries, e.g. Where’s the nearest petrol station?
o Various other requests, e.g. Music, Time, Weather, Sport

– These activities will amass valuable data that can be used in many types of investigations.

Car Diagnostics Applications

– This area of Apple CarPlay and Android Auto haslimited support but we believe it will become useful and increasingly popular as car manufacturers implement this. Car Diagnostic applications will show the user many statistics about the vehicle, for example, fuel level, service reminders, crash information and speed warnings, all of which could be of beneficial use within a case.

All of these different types of applications and the various data that they store will need extracting to be used in a forensic investigation.

Since the data is stored upon the Mobile Phone, the extraction will be performed in exactly the same manner in which a normal Mobile Phone examination will be completed. This involves various stages that takes it from the extraction of raw data, the analysis and finally production of an expert witness statement.

Extraction

The three common extraction types are:
– Physical – this will recover both live and deleted data
– File System – this will recover both live and deleted data depending on the phone
– Logical – this will recover live data.

There are also five advanced forensic techniques that assist in completing the extraction of the Mobile Phone which are as follows:
– JTAG / Flasher Box examinations
– Advanced iOS PIN Decryption (iOS 7, iOS 8 and working towards an iOS 9 exploit)
– Advanced Chip-Off Examination
– In-System Programming (ISP)
– Custom Recoveries

All of which SYTECH Digital Forensics can provide.

After the data has been successfully extracted using one or many of the aforementioned techniques it will then be analysed

Analysis

Analysis involves parsing the raw data to present it in an understandable format including different data types such as SMS messages, Search History and other
valuable evidence recovered from the Mobile Phone.

Prior to a full investigation and further in-depth testing of both Apple CarPlay and Android Auto we are unable to say how the data, that is created from both, is stored on the Mobile Phone. We do however believe the following:

– Apple CarPlay – The data created whilst using Apple CarPlay will not contain any indication that the data was created via this, resulting in Mobile Phone and in-car data being analysed as one.

– Android Auto – Taking into consideration that Android Auto requires an application to be installed on the Mobile Phone for a connection to the vehicle, we believe that the data will be sent through this application thus making it identifiable as in-car data. However, as all of the data is stored on the Mobile Phone, it will still be analysed as one.

The analysis carried out will depend on the type of case we are dealing with, as previously mentioned it may not be easy to differentiate in-car and mobile data, causing issues with cases that only involve in-car data. However, if we need to find out if the suspect has contacted a certain person, we will be able to analyse the communication data whether or not it has been created whilst connected to Apple CarPlay/ Android Auto.

Below are examples of cases that data from cars and mobiles can be used as one:

– Robbery – We may use the data from the Sat Nav application to see the details of a journey, as well as calls to accomplices and internet searches, all of which
could be created whilst the phone was connected to the car.

– Grooming – Messages of a grooming nature may have been sent whilst the phone was connected to the car through voice dictation.

– IIOC offenses – The user could use voice dictation whilst their phone is connected to the vehicle to search for, and/or view Indecent Images of Children.

– Drug Offenses – Activity of intent to supply or the purchase of illegal drugs could be created whilst the user’s device is connected to the car, for example SMS
messages or call history.

– Person of interest – The device’s Music & Audio may be used to assist in a case where very limitedevidence is available, for example the user’s music or audiobook preference may help identify the device’s user.

– Murder – Activity that could be used as evidence in a murder case may be created upon the Mobile

Phone whilst connected to the in-car system. This includes location, communication and many other types of data.

Future Considerations

Many vehicle manufacturers will be implementing Apple CarPlay and Android Auto compatibility into their new build models, for example Ford, who have said they will be adding support for both platforms to all 2017 models.

The availability and support of both platforms will increase significantly over the coming years, this will lead to more applications being developed, adding more functionality to the in-car system, this will in turn create more data that can be forensically extracted, analysed and used for a digital forensic investigation.

SYTECH Digital Forensics

In conclusion, Mobile Phone forensics is going to take over Vehicle Forensics and being one of the leading companies in the UK dealing with Mobile Forensics,
SYTECH will in turn become leading experts in Vehicle Forensics.

Our already successful advanced forensic techniques will play a key role in the future of Vehicle Forensics.
– SYTECH Digital Forensics can conduct In-House Advanced Chip-off examinations
– SYTECH also offers Advanced iOS PIN Decryption.

Assisting Investigations – Cell-Site Analysis

Cell-Site Analysis is an investigative technique which is commonly performed to determine the location and movements of a mobile phone. This is possible through the communication a cellular capable device (such as a mobile phone) has with its network provider.

To expand, whenever a mobile phone is powered on, it will begin relaying signals between the phone and the surrounding ‘network equipment’ (fixed-place antennas commonly referred to as ‘cells’). If the mobile phone has a registered SIM card attached to it, the corresponding network operator for the SIM will allow the mobile phone to ‘route’ communications through these ‘cells’.

It is the intention of the network operators to provide coverage to all of its subscribers; because of this, these cells surround us at almost all times so subscribers can use their mobile phones to perform ‘call-events’ such as voice calls, text messages and accessing internet-based services.

When a mobile phone generates a call-event (whether incoming or outgoing), the cell which provides the ‘best’ service at that particular time is used to handle that event. When this happens, the network will record the various details of the call-event which includes (but is not limited to):

  • Date and time
  • Type of call-event
  • Third-party telephone numbers
  • Cell-site information (such as its cell ID, location and orientation)

This information is stored within the mobile phones ‘Call Data Record’ (CDR) which in turn provides the analyst with a list of a mobile phones historical connections to cell-sites. These CDRs are then analysed and cross referenced against external measurements, intelligence and evidential data to narrow the possible locations for a mobile phone whilst within the coverage area of the utilised cell-sites at specific times or within specific periods.

The ‘external measurements’ referred to is data collected during Radio Frequency (RF) surveys which involves using specialist test equipment to monitor and measure the mobile phone network while tracking its own location using GPS. The resulting data can then be used to determine the service area of a particular cell.

However, as cells are typically designed to provide service to areas, a cell could provide service to multiple locations within the defined area of a particular cell. Therefore, intelligence and evidential data in the form or witness sightings, significant events, data contained within the mobile phone and ‘alibis’ are considered to determine whether the call-event sequencing within the target phones CDR matches a timeline of purported events.

When and where possible, these external factors should be considered as they potentially change the circumstances regarding the mobile phone in question. For instance:

  • The defence may be told by the prosecution that the mobile phone they have attributed to the client used a cell which provides service to the location of a reported ‘drugs house’ almost every five days of a week for the past month.
  • If it is the client’s case that he has no involvement with the reported drugs house, then counsel may advise an opposing expert to view the telecommunications evidence to review the Prosecutions materials while considering the client’s home and work addresses.
  • After a review of the CDRs for the relevant mobile telephone the expert may determine that the call-event sequencing of the client’s mobile phone refutes the prosecutions claim that the mobile phone was located at the reported ‘drugs house’.
  • As a further example, the cell-site activity may instead support an assertion that the mobile phone attributed to the client was merely following a pattern indicating travel to and from a reported ‘work’ address as the cell-site in question merely provided service along his typical working day commute and provided no indication of remaining in the area of the drugs house.

Additionally, whilst Cell-Site evidence is commonly used to provide location and movement analysis, Cell-Site evidence can also be used to identify communication (or lack thereof) between individuals/groups to establish a connection to, or refute any association to, a larger criminal organisation.

SYTECH has a proven history of being able to interpret Cell-Site evidence in a coherent manner to the Prosecution, Defence and ultimately, the members of the Court during trial proceedings.

 

Parvaz Khan

Cell-Site Analyst (Sytech Digital Forensics)

Email: cell-site@sytech-consultants.com